IBRI RESEARCH PUBLISHED: Pancreatic ß-cells in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Different Pathways to Failure

5/13/2020

Abstract:

Loss of functional β-cell mass is the key mechanism leading to the two main forms of diabetes mellitus — type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Understanding the mechanisms behind β-cell failure is critical to prevent or revert disease.

Basic pathogenic differences exist in the two forms of diabetes mellitus; T1DM is immune mediated and T2DM is mediated by metabolic mechanisms. These mechanisms differentially affect early β-cell dysfunction and eventual fate.

Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the field, mostly delivered by studies on β-cells in human disease. These advances include studies of islet morphology and human β-cell gene expression in T1DM and T2DM, the identification and characterization of the role of T1DM and T2DM candidate genes at the β-cell level and the endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling that contributes to β-cell failure in T1DM (mostly IRE1 driven) and T2DM (mostly PERK–eIF2α dependent).

Here, we review these new findings, focusing on studies performed on human β-cells or on samples obtained from patients with diabetes mellitus.

To read the complete research article, go to Nature Reviews Endocrinology.

2019 Annual Report cover

The IBRI 2019 Annual Report is now available. The report theme is “Catalyze, Complement, Connect,” which correlates with the IBRI's goals to seek solutions for health problems, enhance the Indiana life sciences ecosystem, and expedite solutions for the most pressing health issues.